GNF - Mangrove Protection in Asia (Daimler)

Mangrove Protection in Asia


Video "Review Meeting - Involving communities in the restoration and rehabilitation of tropical mangrove ecosystems in Asia"


Video "Success in the Implementation of Mangrove Restoration Project in the Communities of Samrong and Andoung Thmor Communes of Prey Nub District, Preah Sinhanouk Province, Cambodia"


Handbook (November 2015)

Mangrove Restoration Guide (4.7 MB)

Best Practices and Lessons Learned from a Community-based Conservation Project

Mangrove Forests as an important Habitat

The tropical mangrove forests grow in the intertidal zone along coasts. They are well adapted to sea water´s high salinity and are unique habitats, combining water and land. This characteristic makes them the perfect habitat for a diverse number of animal and plant species. About 70 % of tropical fish stocks use the characteristic aerial root plants in the course of their lives - either as a breeding ground, nursery or food source. Also countless reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals live in and of this fascinating ecosystem.


Additionally, mangroves perform many other important functions such as stabilization of the coasts, prevention of erosion and protection against floods and tidal waves. For the local population, they represent an important resource: the wood is used for house construction and as fuel, but also fruits and medicinal plants are harvested from the trees.

Threat of global Mangrove Populations

About 90 % of mangrove forests grow in developing countries and it is estimated that more than 100 million people worldwide benefit from the approximately 152,000 square kilometers mangrove forests that exist on Earth. Nevertheless, the ecosystems disappear in such a rapid pace that their decline is even faster than the  coral reefs and tropical rainforests according to a recent UNEP report. Countries such as the Philippines have lost in the last 100 years nearly 50 % of its mangrove forests. This is due mainly to human impacts, such as coastal development, agriculture, illegal logging and commercial shrimp farms.


Together with the trees, many associated plant and animal species, as well as fish are disappearing,  protection of local population against tsunamis is decreasing and soil erosion is worsening. Almost one-fifth of global greenhouse emissions causing by deforestation are due to mangroves clearance. This is mainly due to the immense potential of mangrove forest as a carbon sink storing greenhouse gases, particularly in its muddy soils. According to experts, one hectare can store about 1,000 tons of carbon.


Project Measures

By the implementation of specific foresty measures, about 150,000 square meters of degenerate mangrove forests and 6 km coastline have been reconditioned in the four project countries. The restoration is based on the proven system from the Ecological Mangrove Restoration (EMR), based on natural succession. In addition, reforestation activities are performed by initial planting of seedlings raised by the project partners in nurseries. In this case, only seeds of native species are used.


More seedlings are raised in so called home gardens by local families. Additionally to mangroves, vegetables, fruits and herbs are cultivated, covering their own needs and offered on the regional markets. This creates additional income opportunities and improved nutritional basis for the families. Also, in the project regions diverse educational activities for approximately 5,000 children and adults are being carried out.

In-depth Experience and long-term Cooperation

For many years, the Global Nature Fund (GNF) is working with the project partners in Sri Lanka, India and Cambodia. The organizations have implemented several mangrove reforestation projects in close cooperation, therefore they have extensive experience in this area.


Successfully implemented mangrove projects of the GNF

Mangrove Swamp Restoration in Sri Lanka (2010 - 2011)


Mangrove Reforestation at Lake Pulicat in India (2009 - 2011)


Mangrove Reforestation at six Lakes in Sri Lanka (2009 - 2010)


EU Asia Pro-Eco II B Post Tsunami Project (2005 - 2008)

Project partners and areas

In conjunction with the partner organisations Nagenahiru Foundation and EMACE Foundation in Sri Lanka, GNF has been implementing successfully the three year EU Asia Pro-Eco II Post Tsunami Project. Further reforestation and environmental education activities have been carried out in the wetlands Madampe and Maduganga as well as at Lake Bolgoda. Since spring 2004, all three wetlands have been represented in the Living Lakes network.


At Lake Pulicat in India, the project activities are carried out by the partner organisation Center for Research on New International Economic Order (CReNIEO). Since 2004, at Lake Pulicat, reforestation has been successfully carried out by GNF and CReNIEO. Tree nurseries were established and mangrove forests restored.


The Cambodian organisation Fisheries Action Coalition Team (FACT) has been a partner in the network Living Lakes since 2011. FACT is representing Tonle Sap Lake in the network. It is closely cooperating with local fishermen and aims at introducing sustainable fishery methods providing benefit to the eco-system and the local people alike.


For years, the NGO Mangrove Action Project (MAP) has been promoting the restoration of mangrove forests in Asia. For this purpose, the organisation has successfully developed and implemented an alternative restoration method called Ecological Mangrove Reforestation (EMR). The project area is located at the Andaman Coast in the province of Trang in Thailand.

 Handbook "Mangrove Restoration Guide"
 Tree nursery in Sri Lanka
 Schoolgirls in the environmental education centre
 Intact mangrove population
 Characteristic aerial root of the mangrove
 Field trip to the project areas in November 2014 (Sri Lanka)
 Mangrove seedlings
 Recultivated project area in Sri Lanka
 Inhabitants, involved in the project in Sri Lanka
 Cultivation of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), Sri Lanka
 Boat on the Pulicat Lake, India
 Young mangrove plants in the Pulicat Lake, India
 Intact mangrove plants in Cambodia

Partner Organisations of the Project

Sri Lanka

 Emace Foundation
 Nagenahiru Foundation







Project Duration:


Project Countries:


Project Partners:






January 2014 – December 2016


India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Thailand

Center For Research On New International Economic Order (CReNIEO), India; Fisheries Action Coalition Team (FACT), Cambodia; Nagenahiru Foundation, Sri Lanka; EMACE Foundation, Sri Lanka; Mangrove Action Project (MAP), Thailand


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